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What happened to the industrialization of lithium in Bolivia?

By José Carlos Solón More than a decade ago, the lithium industrialization process began in the salt flat in Uyuni, Bolivia. The formula to industrialize lithium in Bolivia has its roots in the National Development Plan (NDP) Bolivia with Dignity, Sovereignty, Productive and Democratic way to Live Well (NDP, 2006-2011) that marked the strategic guidelines of the Bolivian government of then President Evo Morales. That … Continue reading What happened to the industrialization of lithium in Bolivia?

The WTO and the havoc in the global supreme court of free trade

by Mary Louise Malig Read the publication in full here Content: Introduction Breaking down the Dispute Settlement Mechanism Bully capitalism versus the Appellate Body The interim dysfunctional way of settling disputes and the reform proposals The barely functioning and non-functional pillars of the WTO Introduction Back in 1995, when the World Trade Organization (WTO) had just started, it was the talk of the town. This … Continue reading The WTO and the havoc in the global supreme court of free trade

The barely functioning and non-functional pillars of the WTO

As mentioned earlier, the WTO has three pillars to keep it running, to monitoring trade policies globally, provide a forum for negotiations on new issues, and to enforce the 60 plus agreements under the WTO and settle disputes between Member states. The functioning of these three pillars is crucial, and although it may sound simple: negotiations for new trade rules, monitoring and resolving disputes, none … Continue reading The barely functioning and non-functional pillars of the WTO

Bully capitalism versus the Appellate Body

In an US election year, then President Obama as represented by the United States Trade Representative (USTR) began a risky precedent. That 2016, the US blocked the reappointment of Appellate Body jurist Seung Wha Chang. Chang was up for a reappointment as the norm is that the jurists serve for four year terms that can be renewed once. The US complained that Chang was responsible … Continue reading Bully capitalism versus the Appellate Body

Breaking down the Dispute Settlement Mechanism

Breaking it down to sections, it can be noted that there are stages to this process: the first is the consultation process, second the review and reporting of the panel body then the Appellate Body from which comes the recommendation and ways on the implementation of the ruling which may include sanctions, countermeasures, retaliatory measures or compensations. In some cases, Arbitrators are involved in the … Continue reading Breaking down the Dispute Settlement Mechanism

La Falsa Imagen del Agronegocio

por Guillermo Villalobos Lea la publicación completa aquí Contenido: Un mundo sumergido en agroquímicos: de la Revolución Verde a la Revolución Genética De la Revolución Verde a la República Unida de la Soya: Sudamérica y sus nupcias con los agroquímicos Los dueños del circo: principales empresas que se benefician del modelo agrícola dependiente de los agroquímicos Las dinámicas del mercado: lucrando con la degradación ambiental y … Continue reading La Falsa Imagen del Agronegocio

The anachronism of the World Trade Organization

Mary Louise Malig* The 12th Ministerial of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is finally taking place in Switzerland in a moment when this country has banned all flights from the South Africa region and established a ten-day quarantine for all persons coming from this part of the world plus Hong Kong, Israel and Belgium because of the Omicron variant.[1] Update: Latest news: the 12th Ministerial … Continue reading The anachronism of the World Trade Organization

¿El futuro es realmente digital? Desenredando el comercio digital

Por: Mary Louise Malig [English version] Lea la publicación completa aquí Contenido Parte 1: ¿Qué es el comercio digital? Parte 2: La economía de las plataformas digitales y sus propietarios Parte 3: El estado de la negociación sobre las reglas Parte 4: La economía digital: Hay más que el comercio  Conclusiones Introducción “Comercio digital” es una palabra de moda actualmente, no solo en los círculos … Continue reading ¿El futuro es realmente digital? Desenredando el comercio digital

Conclusiones

[English] El comercio digital no es nuevo, de hecho, existe desde los años noventa. El comercio digital, por utilizar la definición más estricta del comercio electrónico, es la venta y la compra de bienes y servicios a través de Internet que se entregan digitalmente. Muchos sostienen que, aunque todo el proceso se realice en línea, si el producto final es un bien físico, no se … Continue reading Conclusiones

Parte 4: La economía digital: Hay más que el comercio

[English] La economía digital es un espectro mucho más amplio y el comercio digital es sólo una parte de él. La economía digital implica nuevas tecnologías, una infraestructura más rápida y muchos más trabajadores cualificados en tecnología y otras áreas importantes.  Sólo hay que ver la figura de abajo: Tecnologías digitales que ya están aquí o que llegarán muy pronto 1. Tecnologías de cadena de … Continue reading Parte 4: La economía digital: Hay más que el comercio

Parte 3: El estado de la negociación sobre las reglas

[English] Ya en 1998, la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) emitió una Declaración Ministerial sobre el Comercio Electrónico Global en la Segunda Conferencia Ministerial de la OMC celebrada en Ginebra (Suiza). En ella, solamente se reconocía que el comercio electrónico global estaba creciendo y que, por lo tanto, la OMC necesitaba tener un programa de trabajo para discutir las normas que regirían esta nueva forma … Continue reading Parte 3: El estado de la negociación sobre las reglas

Parte 2: La Economía de las Plataformas Digitales y sus Propietarios

[English] Para entender mejor la economía de las plataformas digitales, desglosaremos los distintos tipos de plataformas; veremos cómo los datos pasan de ser materia prima a ser un bien monetizado en la cadena de valor digital; y analizaremos cómo el debate sobre el comercio digital no debe limitarse al tema de aranceles a los bienes y servicios digitales, y debe incluir la problemática de los … Continue reading Parte 2: La Economía de las Plataformas Digitales y sus Propietarios

Parte 1: ¿Qué es el comercio digital?

[English] El comercio digital, al igual que el comercio tradicional, es parte de la economía. El comercio digital es un componente de la creciente economía digital y afecta a la economía no digital que es mucho más amplia. El comercio digital no es nuevo. Sin embargo, a pesar de que existe desde hace tiempo, no hay acuerdo a nivel internacional sobre su definición y alcance. … Continue reading Parte 1: ¿Qué es el comercio digital?

Conclusions

[Español] Digital Trade is not new, in fact, it has been around since the nineties. Digital trade, to use the narrowest definition of e-commerce, is the sale and purchase of goods and services via the internet of which they are delivered digitally. Many argue that even if the whole process happened online, if the end product is a physical good, then it is not digital … Continue reading Conclusions

Part 4: The Digital Economy: There is more to it than trade

[Español] The Digital Economy is a much broader spectrum and digital trade is just a part of it. Digital economy involves new technologies, faster infrastructure and a whole lot more skilled workers in technology and other significant areas.   Just see the figure below: Digital Technologies that are already here or coming real soon 1. Blockchain technologies Blockchain technologies are a form of distributed ledger … Continue reading Part 4: The Digital Economy: There is more to it than trade

Part 3: The State of Play on the debate on the Rules

[Español] As early as 1998, the World Trade Organization (WTO) had issued a Ministerial Declaration on Global Electronic Commerce at the Second WTO Ministerial Conference in Geneva, Switzerland. Simply recognizing that global electronic commerce was growing and that therefore the WTO needed to have a work program to discuss rules that would govern this new form of trade. The most significant impact of this Ministerial … Continue reading Part 3: The State of Play on the debate on the Rules

Part 2: The Digital Platform Economy and Who Owns It

[Español] To understand the digital platform economy better, this paper breaks down below the various types of platforms, how data changes from raw material to monetized good in the digital value chain and how the discussion on digital trade should not be limited to whether or not tariffs are to be imposed on electronic goods and services but rather, more importantly, should include the complex … Continue reading Part 2: The Digital Platform Economy and Who Owns It

Part 1: What is Digital Trade?

[Español] Digital trade as traditional trade, is a part of the larger picture of the economy. Digital trade is part of the growing digital economy and affects the non-digital larger economy. Digital trade is not new. However, despite it being around for a while, there is no definitive definition and scope globally agreed upon. This has led to lack of consensus and a plethora of … Continue reading Part 1: What is Digital Trade?

Is the future really digital? A deeper understanding of digital trade

By: Mary Louise Malig [Versión en español] Read the entire publication in PDF here Contents Part 1: What is digital trade? Part 2: The Digital Platform Economy and Who Owns It Part 3: The State of Play on the debate on the Rules Part 4: The Digital Economy: There is more to it than trade Conclusions Introduction A current buzzword not only in technology circles … Continue reading Is the future really digital? A deeper understanding of digital trade

Dominant trends in the capitalist world system in the context of the pandemic

Edgardo Lander

1. With the pandemic, debates that had already been taking place from a wide political spectrum of questioning neoliberal globalization are accelerating. The fragility of the productive chains long established with the aim of maximizing short-term corporate profits has fallen to bare in their extraordinary vulnerability. What happens in one link in the chain can have global consequences. Dependence on imports for materials is as critical as basic health equipment and food. This situation has placed in political debate the need for higher levels of self-sufficiency or sovereignty in many different countries of the world. The pandemic has stripped the world like never before. While richer countries are grabbing vaccines for their population and refuse to relax the rules on protection of intellectual property controlled by pharmaceutical corporations developed thanks to massive public funding, many countries in the South will not have widespread access to vaccines until 2022, according to estimates by the People’s Vaccine Alliance[1].

Continue reading “Dominant trends in the capitalist world system in the context of the pandemic”